Информация за страница Universities

Universities are institutions of higher education and research granting academic degrees in a variety of subjects and providing both postgraduate and undergraduate education. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom. The first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the fist university. European higher education took place for hundreds of years of Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools in which monks and nuns took classes. The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papa bull as studia generalia and perhaps from cathedral schools. However, it is possible that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception. The first universities with a form of corporate structure in Europe were the University of Bologna, University of Paris, University of Oxford and more. The University of Bologna began as a law school teaching Roman law of peoples which was in demand across Europe for those defending the right of incipient nations against church and empire.

   During the Early Modern Period the universities in Europe would see a tremendous demand of growth, innovative research and productivity. About 400 years after the first university was founded at the end of the Middle Ages, there were 29 universities spread throughout Europe. In 15th century 28 new ones were created, with another 18 added between 1500 and 1625. This pace continued until by the end of the 18th century there were approximately 143 universities in Eastern Europe and Europe, with the highest concentrations in the German Empire The number does not include all those numerous universities that disappeared or institutions that merged with other universities during this time. It should be noted that the identification of a university was not necessarily obvious during the Early Modern Period as the term is applied to a burgeoning number of institutions. Actually the term was not always used to designate a higher education institution. The propagation of universities was not necessarily a steady progression, as the 17th century was rife with events that adversely affected university expansion.

   The faculty governance model became more and more prominent as universities increasingly came under state control or formed under the auspices of the state. The application of this model took at least 3 different forms although provided a standard for universities. According to this model provided by the University of Paris student members are controlled by faculty “masters”. There were universities that had a system of faculties whose teaching was centralized around a very specific curriculum; this model tended to train specialists. Initially Early Modern universities continued the curriculum and research of Middle Ages. Aristotle was prevalent throughout the curriculum while medicine also depended on Arabic and Galen scholarship. The importance of humanism for changing this state-of-affairs cannot be underestimated. Humanist professors began to transform the study of grammar and rhetoric through the studia humanitatis once they once they joined the university faculty.

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